Package of Practices (English Version)
|Rice/Paddy||Wheat||Maize||Temperate Fruits||Vegetable||Carrot||Black Pepper||Kiwi Fruit||Strawberry|
for the cultivation of Wheat
* Kalyan Sona
Selection and Preparation of Land : Selected well drained loamy soil with good irrigation prospect for growing of Wheat. Water logged areas should be avoided. The land should be ploughed thoroughly three to four times to make the soil well pulverized and should be leveled properly. Seeds should be sown when there is just sufficient moisture in the soil. If the soil is dry, a pre-sowing light irrigation should be given.
Time of Sowing :
* August to September for higher region (above 800 MSL) as rainfed crop.
* Last week of October to December for lower altitudes and plain areas under irrigated condition
Seed Treatment : Seeds should be treated with Thiram at the rate of 3 gms per kg of seed. Pre treated seeds supplied by the supplier should be treated again.
Seed Rate : 100 kgs per hectare. Seeds should be sown at the depth of 5-6 cms in the soil in lines at a distance of 20- 22 cms from row to row.
Manures and Fertilizers : Balanced manuring is important than heavy and unbalanced fertilizer dose 5-10 tonnes of Farmyard manure or compost should be applied per hectare at the time of preparation of land.
Dozes of Fertilizers per Herctare :
|Name of the Fertilizers||Irrgated||Un-irrigated|
|1||Urea||175 Kgs (80 Kg. N)||85 Kgs (40 Kg. N)|
|2||Super Phosphate||250 Kgs (40 Kgs P2O5)||125 Kgs (20 Kgs P2O5)|
|3||Muriate of Potash||65 Kgs (40 Kg. K2O)||33 Kgs (20 Kg. K2O)|
Application of fertilizers should be based on soil testing reports for economic use of fertilizers. Under irrigated condition half the quantity of Urea and the entire quantity of Super Phosphate and Muriate of Potash should be applied 5 cms below the seeds at the time of sowing or just before sowing. The remaining half of the quantity of ureas should be top dressed at the time of first irrigation. In case of rainfed condition the entire quantity of urea should be applied along with the Super Phosphate and Muriate of Potash at the time of sowing.
Irrigation : Proper irrigation is most essential for dwaft wheat specially when high doses of fertilizers are applied. The following irrigation schedule should be followed if winter rainfall is not available during the period of wheat growing.
* First irrigation 20-25 days after sowing (Crown root initiation stage).
* Second Irrigation 40-45 days after sowing (tillering stage).
* Third Irrigation 70-75 days after sowing (late jointing stage).
* Fourth Irrigation 90-95 days of sowing (flowering stage).
* Fifth Irrigation after 110-115 days of sowing (dough stage).
Weed Control : Wheat field should be kept weed free particularly at the early stage of growth.
For controlling broad leaved weeds, spray, 2,-4-D @ 0.5 to 1 kg per hectare in about 600 litres of water after 4-5 weeks of sowing by this time wheat seedlings are 12-15 cm in height, spraying of 2,4-D before or after this period should be avoided.
The soil should not be disturbed for at least 4-5 weeks after weedicide application. Off-type plants and plants showing small infection should be rouged out immediately. In absence of weedicides at least two hand weeding should be given, once after 20-25 days of planting and the second just before the tillering stage.
Plant Protection :
A. Disease :
i). Seed Borne Disease : Loose Smut, Bunt, etc.
* Remove the smutted ear-heads as soon as they emerge from the boot leaf and burn.
* Treat each Kg of seeds with 1.5 gm. Bavistin /J.K.Stein/ Derosal 50 WP as wet treatment before sowing.
ii). Rust :
Dark brown or black or orange yellow pustules are formed on the leaves, leaf-sheaths and stems in colder months. Rust cause drying up of foliage and consequent reduction in yield.
* Treat the seeds before sowing as mentioned above.
* Spray Dithane M-45/ Indofil M-45 at the rate of 2 Kgs or Dithane Z-78 at the rate of 2.5 kg mixed with 100 litres of water approximately per hectare as soon as the symptoms are first noticed. Two to three spraying at fortnight interval will effectively control the disease or Dust Sulphur at the rate of 25 kg per hectare.
B. Insect Pest :
i). Termites or White Ants : Termites or ants are serious problem in irrigated sandy or sandy loam soil.
* Irrigate the affected field as it prevents termite damage to some extent.
* At the time of application of basal dose of manure, apply Ekalux 1.5% dust @ 45 Kgs per hectare and miz with the soil to a depth of 8-10 cm by repeated ploughing of the field.
* In case of termites attack in standing crop, drench the soil with 2.5 litres of Dursban 20EC mixed in 1000 litres of water approximately. The insecticides can also be mixed with irrigation water.
ii). Stem Borer :
It bores the stem causing “dead heart” in early stage of crop and “White ears” in the earhead stage.
* Pull out the “ dead heart” and “ White ears” along with larvae or pupae and destroy by burning.
* Broadcast Ekalux 5G or Furadon 3G @18 kgs per hectare uniformly in the infested areas with assured high soil moisture content or spray Dimecron 85 EC @ 5 to 6 ml or Thiodan 35 EC @27 ml or Ekalux 25 EC in 18 litres of water (1 kerosene tinful). Two to three spraying at an interval of 3 weeks will control the insect pest
ii). Aphids, Army, Worms, Grasshoppers and Cut Worms : Apply Ekalux 1.5% dust @ 45kgs per hectare or spray Dimecron 85 EC @ 5-6 ml or Rogor 30 EC @ 10-12 ml or Thiodan 35 EC 27 ml in 18 litres of water. Repeat spraying at forthnight interval if necessary.
ii). Stem Borer : Poison baiting with Zinc phosphide against rat menace may be undertaken during the earing stage.
Harvest : The maturity of these varieties are uniform. Harvesting of wheat should be done as soon as the grains are ripe to avoid loss due to shattering of seeds and damage by birds etc.