Package of Practices (Khasi Version)

Phan Sohniamtra Slasha Sying Shynrai Tit Budam Vanilla Broccoli Jingpang Sohsaw

Ka Rukom Rep Vanilla

Vanilla :- U Jingthung thymmai ha ki jylla kerala , Karnataka bad Tamilnadu jong ka Ri India bad ju pyndonkam ia u ban pyniwbih ia ki jingbam jingdih bad kiwei kiwei de. Kumba ka long mynta une u jaid u iaid dor bha ban shalan shabar Ri bad ka dor mynta (2002) kalong hapdeng Rs. 1000- 12000 shi kilo mar ia dep kheit.

Ka Jaka :- U Vanilla u long bha ha ki jaka kiba syiad baqd ka suin bneng kaba sngem (Humid Tropical Climate ) haba ka jingshit jingkhriat ka long hapdeng 20o – 32o C ( ym duna ia ka 10.C ha ka miet tlang. ). Ka khyndew ka dei ruh ban long kaba jiar um bha ba long dew shyiap bad sboh, (bun sladieng bad dieng pyut).

Dieng Pynpur :- U Vanilla u donkam ki dieng ban pur bad ha kajuh ka por u donkam ka jingkah tngen na ka sngi. Lah ruh ban thung ha khap ki dieng kwai ne ki dieng bah. Hynrei kan bha ban thung ia u, ha dien ba la thung khnang ki dieng shisnem shwa ban thung da ki dieng soh lyngdkhur (ba heh sla ), Plumaria alba, Indian Almond (Terminallia cattappa) Glyriodia, Erythrina cashew ne kino kino ki dieng kah syrngiew ba duna thied (Non fibrour roots). Thung ia ki ha ka jingjngai kumba 2mtr na ka wei ha kawei pat ka lain bad 1.5 mtr na u wei u dieng ha u wei pat. Ia kine ki dieng pynpur dei ban ailad ba kin mih tnat naduh ka jingjrong kaba 1.5m –2m kum ka shatri kah syrngiew ia u jingthung bad ban ioh wah ia ki jyntang Vanilla kiba la palat ia katei ka jingjrong. Ia ki dieng pynpur ruh donkam ban ngor ha shuwa ban slap bad shwa ka por kheit lada jia ba ki la kah syrngiew palat.

Ka Rukom Bad Por Thung :- Tih thliew ki ba 30 x 30 x 30 cms kumba 30cm ka jingjngai na ka trai jong u dieng pynpur . Pyndap biang iaki thliew da ka ba la khlehlang mar shiteng ka khyndew bad ki nuit sla dieng, sboh ne dieng pyut

Ia u Vanilla la thung da ki tning kiba 1.5 –2M ka jingjrong,. Ot lypa bad buh hapoh syrngiew kumba shi taiew shwa ban thung ha ki bnai April – May lane August – September (Ki por bym da jur slap than ), khnang ba ki jingthung kin kham duna ka um ha ki. Haba thung tap khyndew malu mala 3-4 tylli ki mat bad wat tap khyndew ia ka tduh ba ot. Tap da ki sladieng bad dieng pyut ha tyrai bad pynsnoh ia u jyntang da ka ba the synjor ha u dieng ban pynpur.

Lada jia ba dang duna ka jingkah syrngiew dei ban kah da ki sla kwai ne kino kino ban iada na ka jingthang ka sngi. Ia ki thning kiba hapoh ka 50cms yn dei ban thung sha bri, dei ban sara shuwa haduh ban da jrong.

U Syntiew Bad Ban Pynshongkha (Artificial Pollination)

U Vanilla u phuh syntiew u wei shi sngi ha u jyntang syntiew bad u neh ruh tang shi sngi. Ia ka bynta Synrang (Pollen sac) bad Khynthei (Stigma) la pyniakhlad da ka rostelum ne stamen cap. Na lade hi une u syntiew un nym lah ban mih soh . U donkamm ka jingiarap jong ki briew ha kajuh hi ka sngi ba plied u syntiew naduh ba mih sngi haduh ka por shiteng sngi..

Ia kane ka jing pynshongkha lah ban leh da kaba plied ne niat ia ka stamen cap/ Rostelum da u dieng suh bniat ne siej ba la shna khnang. Bat ia u dieng da ka kti ka mon bad niat ka ka ‘ ti kmie jong ka diang ia ka stamen haduh ban ia kynduh ia ka stigma khlem da pynthud ne pynmynsaw ia kiwei pat ki bynta u syntiew khamtam ka stigma.

Wat lada lah ban pynphuh 18-20 tylli ki syntiew ha u wei u jyntang syntiew hapoh kalai taiew hynrei kan bha ban pynshongkha tangt 10-12 tylli ha u wei u jyntang syntiew khnang ba ki soh kin ia ryntih ka jingheh. Lada leh palat ia katei, ki soh kin long kiba kdor, rit, bad hiar dor. Ka shim por 9 –11 bnai naduh ka sngi ba pynshongkha haduh banlong kheit katkum ka jinglong ka jaka.

Ka Por Kheit :- Ki soh jong une u jingthung ki long kum ki soh Presbin. Ka por kaba biang ban kheit ka long haba ki la sdang ban stem ha ki tduh jong ki soh. Lada kheit dier hadien ba baroh ki soh ki la stem kin sa pait bad kin duna ka jingsma iewbih bad kim iaid iew. lada kheit kloi palat ruh kin duna ka jingsma iewbih.

Ka Jingmih :- U Vanilla u sdang ban phuh syntiew naduh ka snem kaba lai. U soh bha haka snem ka ba 5 ne 6. Ka jingmih ka duna haduh ka snem kaba 12 ne 13. Ha kane ka por la dei ban thung bujli thymmai ia une u jingthung. Lada biang bha ka sumar u lah ban mih soh haduh 3kg na ka shi tynrai.

Ka Rukom Pyniaid Iew :- Ia u soh lah ban die beit mar ia dep kheit lane lah ruh ban pyntyrkhong shuwa (Madagascar Method of Processing ) Kumne harum :-

1. Pdem Um Khluit (killing):- Pynkhuid ia ki soh bad pdem ia ki ha ka umkhluit kaba 63°- 65°C kumba 3 minit eiei. Weng noh haba kin sdang ban pynmih ia ka jingiewbih.

Ka Jingsumar : Hadien ba la dep thung , khmih bad sumar ioh don jingpang/ khniang bad pynsnoh ia ki jingtang ha ki diengpur ha ka rukom kaba dei.

Ynda u jyntang u la palat ia ka 1.5m –2m donkam ban wah ha ki tnat dieng pynpur ne ki jingwah ba la shna khnang ha ki dieng bym pait pnat ha kata ka rukom ba ka mat ka ban mih lung kan phai sha suin . Ban leh ia kane, pynkhun ia ki sla khyndiat shapoh (45o angle). Haba u jyntang ba shu wah u la jrong palat 2m dei ban ot ha ka jingjrong kaba 1.25- 15km ban ailad ba un phuh syntiew. Ia u thning ba la ot lah ban sara ban thung biang. U Vanilla u donkam ka sboh sla/niut/dieng pyut . Namar kata ia ki niut ba la thiew buh ha jan tynrai. Lah ruh ban ai da ki sboh dawai da ka ba shuber najrong khyndew kumba 20-30cms ka jing jngai na u tynrai da kaba weng shwa ki dieng pyut bad niut. Donkam 50-60gms ka sboh shini, (urea) 60-100gms ka sboh dpei (SSP) bad 50-60gms ka sboh shyiap (MOP) na ka bynta shi tynrai. Ka por ban ai sboh dawai ka dei shisien ha u bnai May – June bad shishien ha u bnai August – September.

Ban Ai Um :- Ha ka por rang donkam ban ai um kumba ar liter shi tynrai shisien shi taiew. Ha ka snem kaba lai haba u jingthung u la dei ban soh, wat ai um shuh haduh u bnai December ne January haduh ba u jingthung u la pyni ki dak kumban iap na ka jingtyrkhong um. Nangta sa sdang ai um biang man ka taiew . Da kaba leh kumne kan iarap ia u jingthung ban phuh syntiew bha .

KI JINGPANG:

Ki Jingpang Tram:- (Phythopthora sp) kane ka ktah ia ki shylluit, jyntang bad ki soh ba lung bad (b) Pyut jyntang (Furarium exysporuim). Ia kine ki jingpang lah ban iada da kaba synreit dawai ym duna arsien shisnem (shwa ban sdang slap bad hadien ba la rang) da ka 1% Bordeaux mixturem (100ml/100 litre ka um) lane ka 0.2% Blue Copper (200gms /100litre ka um ).

N.B.
(a) Ka rukom khleh Bordeaux Mixture :
Khleh 100gms turia + 100gms shun kpu + 10 litar ka um ha ki Borti/ Dabor plastic . Pynum shuwa ia u tutia bad ka shun la ka jong nangta sa khlehlang. Shwa ban pyndonkam dei ban da test da kaba wieh shiphang da ka wait/ tari. Lada kiew sarang ka wait /tari ai shun haduh ba ka jingkiew sarang ka jah noh.
(Ban kham sngewthuh kham bha na ka bynta kane ka jingkhleh wad jingiarap na ki Agriculture Officer/ Horticulture Officer).

(b) Ka pyut Thied (Fasarium batatis):- Kane ka jingpang ka ktah ia u thied bad ki bynta u jingthung hapoh khyndew. Ban iada theh ha tynrai kumba 2-3 litar ka um dawai Carbendazin 1%.

(c) Anthracnose ( Calospora vanilla) : Kane ka ktah ia ki jingtang ba lung , ki sla bad ki thied ruh bad hadien sa hap noh ki soh. Kane ka nangjur haba jur u slap , haba thung khah bad kah syrngiew palat. Ban iada synreit daka Carbendazin 1%.

KI KHNIANG: Ki khniang kim da pynjulor eh ia u Vanilla. Wat la katta don ki mattah kiba bam ia ki sla bad don ruh ki Lamellicorn beetles (Hoplia retusa bad Saula ferruginea guest ), ki ash grey weevil ki ba bam ia ki syntiew. Nalor kine don ruh ki Earwing, ki tham, ki pulit bad kiwei kiwei de kiba donkam ban iada na ki.

2. Thad Pynsyep (sweating) :- Hadien ba la pdem um khluit, thad ia ki soh ha ka sngi kumba 1-1 ½ kynta ha ki rynsan ki ba 75 –100cms na khyndew ba kin jar um. Mar ia dep thad, song pat ia ki ha ki Blanket. Ha ka por miet, thep ia kine ki song blanket ha ki synduk bym lait lyer. Kane ka jingthad sngi, song blanket bad thep synduk dei ban leh man ka sngi haduh 10-12 sngi kat kum ka jinglong jong ka jaka haduh ba ka jingkhia jong ki kan long mar shiteng ia ka jingkhia shwa ban pdem umkhluit.

3. Ka ba thad ha poh ing :- Hadien ka thad pynsyep , ia ki soh donkam ban thad haduh 20-25 sngi hapoh kamra ha ki kyrdan lyntang ba la shna khnang. Ki soh kin kylla jem bad lah ban kyllain ha ki shympriah kti kumba kyllain plastic.

Ki kamra thad ki dei ban don ka jingsngem (relative humidity) kaba 70% shajrong. Lada duna ka jingsngem donkam ban buh da ka um ha ki tray ha ki kyrdan lane thad da ki jain jhieh ha ka kamra . donkam ban kylla man ka por ban iada na ki jingphuh tit bad ban ryntih ka jingrkhiang. Hadien ba la thad kumne, ka jingkhia jong ki kan hiar haduh ¼ (Shipawa ) na ka jingkhia kaba mynshwa.

4. Ka rukom Song bad Tyngkai (conditioning ):- Jied ia ki soh katkum ka jingheh bad jingjrong bad the song kumba 50 la 100 tylli shi song. Song ha ki jingsong kiba biang kum ka kot makhon (butter paper), lane kot cellophane bad thep ha ki synduk bym lait lyer. Kine ki song ki la biang ban die ha ki nongthied.

N.B Ia kane ka jingthoh la sot bad pynwan sha ka ktien khasi na ki jingthoh jong ka Spices Board bad na ka Indian Institute of Spices Research (ICAR) Calicut, Kerala.
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