Package of Practices (Khasi Version)

Phan Sohniamtra Slasha Sying Shynrai Tit Budam Vanilla Broccoli Jingpang Sohsaw

Ka Rukom Rep Tit Budam

U Tit Budam u long uwei napdeng ki jait tit ba la rep kylleng ka pyrthei bad u long uba iaid iew ruh khamtam ha ki sor heh ka ri India namar ba u long u jait tit uba tei met shibun.

Une u jait tit u iadei bha ban rep ha kane ka jylla jong ngi khamtam ha ki jaka ba kham khriat bad uba ki nongrep ki ioh myntoi. Nalor kata, ka sboh (compost) kaba ladep thung ia une u jingthung ka dang long kaba bha eh ban pyndonkam biang ha kaba thung ia kiwei kiwei pat ki jingthung ha ka jaka ban pyndonkam da ka sboh eit/nuit.

POR THUNG
Jaka Syiad - Risaw haduh Lber
Jaka Khriat - Rymphang haduh Naiwieng
Ha ki jaka khriat, wat lada lah ban rep lajan baroh shi snem, hynrei ka jingmih ha ki bnai lyiur ka kham duna ban ia kiwei pat ki bnai.

I. KI TIAR BAD JINGDONKAM HA KABA SHNA LANE PDEM SBOH
  1. U skum kba.
  2. Ki sboh dawai – dawai mluh (urea), dawai dpei (SSP) bad dawai shyiap (MOP).
  3. U skop kew (wheat bran), ka mithai lali (Gur) bad Gypsum.
  4. Ka jingker (ba la shna da ki lyntang bad dieng pyniar) ba pyndonkam ha kaba lum bad kynton ia u skum kba ba un kylla sboh. Ka jingheh kumba kdew harum:-
  5. Ki belsha, proh, borti plastic bad tin ai umjhur.
  6. Ka sem buh skum.
  7. Ka iing ban pdem skum.
Ka iing kaba 20 phut ka lynter la 15 phut ka pynkiang ka long kaba biang ban pdem kumba shi ton u skum kba u ban pynmih shi ton tam ka sboh thung tit.

Ia ka madan jong ka iing dei ban siang da ka dewbilat. Shi pawa jong ka biar lah ban ker lane kynroh bad lai pawa shalor ryngkat bad ka tnum lah ban tap da ka plastic kaba rben.

Ka sem buh skum bad iing pdem sboh dei ban shna mar syndah khnang ban suk ka kit ka bah.

II. KI TIAR BAD JINGDONKAM HA KA POR THUNG
  1. Ka kamra thung kaba dei da ka ing dewbilat ka dei ban long kaba ioh lyer bad pyngngad bha. Nalor kawei ka jingkhang bah, donkam ruh ki jingkhang iit, ar tylli na sha khmat bad ar na sha dien. Ka kamra thung kaba 15 phut ka lynter la 8 phut ka pynkiang kan ngiam kumba shiton ka sboh.
  2. Ki synduk dieng (trays) – kaba 3 phut ka lynter, 2 phut ka pynkiang bad shiteng phut ka jingjylliew ryngkat bad saw tylli ki kjat dieng kiba jrong 18 inchi uwei.
        Lah ruh ban thung da kaba shna da ki rynsan siej, 4 haduh 5 kyrdan; ka krung jong kawei pa kawei ka rynsan kan long 6 inchi ka jingjylliew . Siang ia ki rynsan da ka plastic rben shwa ban thep sboh.
        Ka lad ba kham suk haba thung tit budam ka long da ki pla plastic rben :- 24 inchi ka lynter la 18 inchi ka pyngkiang. Thep ia ka sboh ha kine ki pla bad tynrong ia ki ha ki rynsan kumba la kdew haneng.
  3. Ka kor kynshait um (sprayer).
  4. U Thermometer ( stirring rod type : 0-50 degree centigrade) – u ban pyni ia ka jingshit ne jingkhriat jong ka kamra bad ka sboh.
  5. U symbai tit ( spawn) – Ia une u symbai lah ban ioh da kaba ai jingtip lypa na ka office jong U/Ka Assistant Pathologist, Mushroom Development Centre, Agriculture Campus, Upper Shillong - 793009.
KA RUKOM REP

Ka rukom rep tit budam ka kynthup ia ki saw bynta ba la kdew harum:-
  1. Ka rukom shna lane pdem sboh.
  2. Kaba bet lane pynpur symbai.
  3. Ka rukom ai khyndew.
  4. Ka rukom sumar ha ka por soh.
1. KA RUKOM SHNA LANE PDEM SBOH
Ia kane, donkam ka jinghikai kaba bniah bad thikna bha (lah ban ioh jingtip kham bniah na ka office shna symbai ba la kdew haneng) khnang ba u nongrep un sngewthuh ia ki jingdonkam ha kaba pynmih ia ka sboh ba janai, kaba long ka jingbam ia u tit.

Ka shim por kumba 25 – 28 sngi ia u skum kba ban kylla sboh haba ai ryngkat ia ki sboh dawai bad kiwei kiwei de ki jingdonkam kiba dei ban khleh lang bad ai ha ka rukom bad jingthew kumba la kdew harum:
1. U jyntang kba - 1 ton
2. Sboh mluh (Urea) - 9 Kgs
3. Sboh dpei (SSP) - 7.5 Kgs
4. Sboh shyiap (MOP) - 7.5 Kgs
5. Skop kew (Wheat bran) - 7.5 Kgs
6. Mithai lali (Gur) - 12 Kgs
7. Gypsum - 75 Kgs
Ka iing pdem sboh ka dei ban long kaba khuid bad siang dewbilat.

Nyngkong, pdem ha ka um ia u skum ba la dain rit haduh ba un da kjit um bha.

Shi sngi shwa ban pdem sboh, khleh lang ia ki sboh dawai (6 kg ka sboh mluh, 7.5 kg ka sboh dpei, 7.5 kg ka sboh shyiap bad 3.8 kg u skop kew). Synreit um ban sngem, lum lang shi jaka bad tap da ka plastic khnang ba ki sboh dawai kin um. Ha ka sngi kaba bud, khleh lang ia kitei ki sboh dawai bad u skum kba ba la pynsngem lypa bad sa kynton ia u ha ka jingker (ba la shna da ki lyntang bad dieng pyniar kumba la batai shakhmat).Kyrdem ba un skhem bad ieh ia ka kynton skum haduh 5 sngi. Ia kane ka kynton skum dei ban pynpra bad lum biang bunsien khnang ban pyniamilai ia u skum bad ki dawai kumba la batai harum:

Sien kylla kaba nyngkong (hadien 5 sngi):- Namar ka bynta ba najrong bad kynriang ka kynton skum ka dei lyer bad tyrkhong bad kan ym lah ban kylla sboh, katba ka bynta ba ha pdeng pat ka khluid kat ban pynpyut ia u skum. Kumta, donkam ban pynpra ia kane ka kynton da kaba weng noh shi phut ka bynta ba nabar. Pynpra pat sa ka bynta ba hapdeng, kaba khluid khnang ba kan ioh lyer. Hadien kata sa kynton biang ia une u skum; da kaba thep hapdeng ia ka bynta ba shabar bad tap pat nabar da ka bynta ba hapdeng khnang ba u skum un ih ryntih. Ha ka por ba kynton biang ia u skum khleh ryngkat bad ki dawai sboh (3 kg ka sboh mluh, 3.8 kg u skop kew bad 12 kg ka mithai lali) kiba la dep khleh lypa shi sngi shwa ban kylla ia u skum. Lada u skum u i tyrkhong, pynsngem ia u tangba dei ban phikir ba um dei ban jhieh.

Sien kylla kaba ar (hadien 9 sngi):- Ha ka sien kylla kaba ar, weng ia ka bynta ba shabar sawdong jong ka kynton skum (shi phut – shi phut tam ) da kynther bha ia u bad buh shi jaka. Pynpra ia ka bynta ba hapdeng, kynther bha ba kan ioh lyer. Kynton biang da kaba thep ia ka bynta ba shabar hapdeng bad tap da ka bynta ba napdeng shabar bad nalor.

Sien kylla kaba lai (hadien 12 sngi):- Pynpra biang ia ka kynton skum bad kylla biang kumba la batai haneng. Ai ruh 75 kg u Gypsum ha ka por ba kynton pat ia u.

Sien kylla kaba saw (hadien 15 sngi):- Pynpra biang ia ka kynton skum (ha kane ka kynti u skum u la sdang pyut ban long sboh) ha kajuh ka rukom. Pynsngem lada u skum u i tyrkhong.

Sien kylla kaba san (hadien 18 sngi):- Kylla kum ha ka sien kylla kaba saw

Sien kylla kaba hynriew (hadien 21 sngi):- Kylla kum ha ka sien kylla kaba san.

Sienkylla kaba hynniew (hadien 24 sngi):- Kylla biang kum ha ka sien kaba hynriew.

Sienkylla kaba phra (Hadien 27 sngi) :- Ha kane ka sien u skum kba u la iashoh bad pyut bha. Lada ka sboh ha kane ka kynti kam sma iewkhong shuh (ka jingsma jong ka ammonia) kata, ka sboh ka la long ban bet symbai.. Hynrei lada shem ba ka sboh ka dang don ka jingsma, donkam ban kylla biang ia ka man la ka saw sngi. Ka jingsngem jong ka sboh ruh ka dei ban biang (lah ban sngewthuh da kaba shim shi kham ka sboh ha ka kti bad sa khem ia ka; kam dei bad jhieh bad snoh ha ki shynriah kti lane tyrkhong).

2. KABA BET LANE PYNPUR SYMBAI.
Thep ia ka sboh ha ki synduk dieng/rynsan siej lane pla plastic kumba 2 inchi eiei. Brein symbai halor ka sboh. Tap sboh pat halor u symbai kumba 2 inshi bad thap ryntih ia ka. Iai leh kumne tad ynda dap shi synduk ka sboh khnang ba u symbai un ioh shong 3 haduh 5 syrtap. (Pyndonkam 1 haduh 2 song u symbai ha ka shi synduk ka sboh; 3 pawa haduh 1 song u symbai shi pla plastic ka sboh). Hadien kata tap ia ka sboh da ki kot khubor.

Tynrong ia ki synduk kawei halor kawei (haduh 4 – 5 kyrdan) lane pla plastic halor rynsan ha ka kamra thung kaba la pynkhuid bad pynsngem lypa. Synreit ia ki kot khubor da ka um dawai formalin 2 % (shi pawa ka dawai ha ka 5 litre ka um) tad kin da sngem bha.

Phikir ban pynsngem lynter ia ka sboh da kaba synreit um barabor ia ki kot khubor ba la siang halor jong ka. Donkam ban pynneh ia ka jing syiad hapoh kamra (20 – 23 degree centigrade) bad kumjuh ban pynsngem lynter ia ka. Yn lah ban pynlong kumta da kaba khang lut ia ki jingkhang baroh bad kynshait um ia ka kamra.

Shi taiew hadein ba la lah bet symbai, ka jingkhluid jong ka sboh kan kiew na ka daw jong ka jingsur thied u symbai. Donkam ban bishar bniah ba ka jingsyiad jong ka sboh ka dei ban long hapdeng 20 – 26 degree centigrade. (Ia kane lah ban sngewthuh da kaba sieh da u thermometer ha ka) bad lada shem ba ka jingkhluid ka nangkiew, donkam ban plie lut ia ki jingkhang jong ka kamra. Phikir pat ba ka kamra thung tit bad sboh ki dei ban sngem lynter. Lada biang ka jingsngem bad jingsyiad, kan shim por 15 – 20 sngi ia u symbai ban sur thied bad kiew shajrong jong ka sboh. Hadien kane, weng noh ia ki kot khubor bad ber pat da ka khndew ba khuid ba la pynkhreh lypa na ka bynta kane.

3.KABA AI KHYNDEW.
Kaba ai khyndew ka mut kaba tap ia ka sboh kaba la sur thied bha da ka khyndew khnang ba un soh. Khlem da ai khyndew, u tit un ym lah ban soh wat lada u sur thied bha. Kaba ai khyndew ka pynskhem bad kyrshan ia ki tit ha ka sboh ha ka por soh. Kaba ai khyndew ka pynneh ruh ia ka jingsngem ka sboh. Ka khyndew ba pyndonkam ka dei ban long ka dew kper lane dew thung. Kyrsih ia ka ban lait na ki nuit ki nier bad khleh lang saw bynta ka khyndew bad shi bynta ka eit masi ba la iap tyrkhong bad lwet bha. Ar bnai shwa ban pyndonkam pynkhreh lypa ia kane ka khyndew da kaba khleh lang bad ka shun kpu (shi byrni dewbilat ka khyndew la 4 pela ka shun kpu ba la kyrsih bha). Pynsngem ia ka bad lum khop shi jaka. Hadien shibnai jrein dawai formalin ia kane ka khyndew – shun (1 litre formalin ha ka 20 litre ka um) da ka tin ai um jhur. Lum biang shijaka, tap bad tynsat da ka plastic khnang ba kan ym lait jynhaw. Ieh ia ka kumta haduh ar taiew ba ka bor jynhaw jong ka dawai kan pyniap ia ki khniang bad jingpang. Saw sngi shwa ban pyndonkam plied noh ia ka plastic, pynkhih ia ka khyndew ba kan jah ka bor dawai bad sa pyndonkam ban ber halor ka sboh.

Ai khyndew (ba la pynsngem lypa) halor ka sboh kumba 1 – 1.5 inchi ka jingrben. Pynneh ia ka jingsyiad bad jingsngem jong ka kamra kumba 10 sngi lynter.

4.KA RUKOM SUMAR HA KA POR SOH.
Hadein shitaiew ba ai khyndew ynda ki thied ki la sdang ban kiew sha ka khyndew, pyndaitthah ia ka kamra da kaba plie lut ia ki jingkhang bad pynsngem ia ka kamra. Pynnneh ia ka jingsngem ka sboh bad khyndew. Hadien 12 – 15 sngi na kaba ai khyndew ki symboh tit kin sdang ban mih bad hapoh 4 – 5 sngi ki la long ban kheit. Ka por ba biang eh ban kheit ia u tit budam ka long ha ka por ba u soh u dang song bad syndait ha u dieng bad um pat plied. Kheit ia u da kaba bat bad khyrwait suki artat. Ka bynta ba shapoh jong u dieng tit kaba snoh bad ka khyndew dei ban ot noh mar ia dep kheit. Lah ban kheit bunsien na kajuh ka synduk lada pynsngem tista ia ka sboh bad pynioh lyer bha ia ka kamra. Ka jingseisoh ka long 100 –120 kgs u tit na ka shi ton ka sboh.

KI JINGPANG/KHNIANG BAD LAD JINGIADA.
1. Jingpang bthuh:- Kane ka jait jingpang ka long kaba kynrei bha ha ka sboh khamtam ha ka por ba pynpur symbai. Ka bynta ba nalor jong ka sboh ka snoh da ka kynja bthuh kaba lah ban long rong jyrngam lane rong ktieh lane saw bthuh, kaba long shi jaka bad rben kum ki kynphad. Ka don ruh ka jingsma kum u tyrkhang khlaw.

Jingiada :-Kynshait da ka dawai Carbendazin ( 0.01 % shiteng shamoit sha ka dawai khleh lang ha ka 10 litre ka um). 2. Jingpang pynpyut u tit:- Kane ka jingpang ka paw ha ka por soh, ha kaba ki soh tit kiba dang rit bad kiba la long ban kheit ki shu kylla rong bad pyut noh.

Jingiada :- Iada ia kane da ka dawai Bleaching powder (khleh lang shi shamoit sha ka dawai bad 10 litre ka um) kynshait dawai kumba ar sien shi taiew. Bteng ia ka jingkynshait dawai kumba ar taiew lynter hadien kata sa sangeh ai dawai kumba lai taiew. 3. Ki khniang:- Ki khniang kiba kynrei ha u tit budam bunsien ki long ki kynja skain kiba rit kiba pynboi ksain bad bam ia u tyllong jong u tit.

Jingiada :- Kynshait da ka dawai Dichlorvos da kaba khleh shi pawa shamoit sha ka dawai bad 10 litre ka um ban pyniap ia ki skain bad ksain; kynmaw ban kynshait ia kane ka dawai hadien ba la dep kheit lut ia u tit. Kheit pat ynda la dap lai sngi hadien ba la ai dawai. 4. Ki Khnai:- Ki khnai ruh ki long kiba pynjulor bha ia u tit khamtam lada ka por soh ka long myntlang bym don jingbam sha kper lane lyngkha. Donkam ban set bad khang bha ia ki thliew ki syar ha ka kamra thung.

Nalor ki jingpang/khniang kiba pynjulor ia u tit, na ka daw jong ka jingtyrkhong um ka sboh bad kamra thung, ka wanrah ka jingkhoh snep bad jingthut ha ka jinglong u tit bad kumta um iaid iew shuh. Iada ia kane da kaba pynbiang ia ka jingsngem ka sboh bad ka kamra thung.

Lada ka kamra thung ka duna ka rukom ioh lyer bad kam long kaba pyngad ha ka por soh ka pynlong ia u dieng jong u tit ba un kham jrong ban ia kaba u die ban long bad kane ka pynsniew dur bad pynhap dor ha iew ha hat. Kumta ka kamra thung ka dei ban long kaba biang bha ka lyer; da kaba plie bun kynta ia ki jingkhang bah bad jingkhang rit ha ka por soh.

BAn Kynmaw Haba Rep Tit
  1. Ka jingleh khuid ka long kawei na ki kyndon ba donkam ban bud haba rep tit khnang ban iada ia u tit na ki khniang lane jingpang. U tit u long u jinghtung uba kloi ban soh, kumta ban pyndonkam ia ki dawai khniang ka long kaba ma. ( Kawei na ki lad jingiada ka long ka jinglehkhuid).
  2. Ka jaka ba pdem sboh ka dei ban long kaba khuid bad kaba da siang dewbilat ka madan bad tap tnum ban iada na u slap.
  3. Ka jingkhleh ia u skum kba bad kiwei kiwei ki dawai ka dei ban long kat kum ba la batai.
  4. Ha ka por ba kylla ia ka sboh, phikir ba ka rukom ai um dei ban long tang kat ban pynsngem ia u skum ym ba un jhieh.
  5. Ki tiar kiba pyndonkam ha ka por ba bet symbai ki dei ban long kiba khuid bha.
  6. Pynkhuid bha ia khyndew shwa ban pyndonkam.
  7. Ka kamra thung bad ki tiar ki tar ba pyndonkam baroh ki dei ban long kiba da pynkhuid bha. Ka shakiar ing jong ka kamra thung ka dei ban long kaba khuid.
  8. U briew uba kheit tit u dei ban leh khuid bha ia lade bad phong da ki jain kiba khuid.
  9. Hadien ba la dep kheit, ki synduk thung bad ki kamra thung donkam ban pynkhuid bha ba kin ym sah ki tit lynkhot lyngkhai.
  10. Ha ka por soh, ai um ia ki synduk, kumba 24 kynta shwa ban kheit.
  11. Hadien ba la kut ka por soh, phylliew noh ia ka sboh bad lum jngai na ka kamra thung. Pynkhuid bad sait bha ia ki synduk thung; nangta kynshait da ka dawai formalin. Hadien ba la pynkhuid ia ka kamra, synreit da ka dawai formalin bad khang khop ia ka kumba ar sngi khnang ban pyniap lut ia ki khniang bad jingpang.
  12. Ia ki pla plastic, pyndonkam tang shisien ban rep tit. Hadien ba la phylliew noh ia ka sboh, lum shi jaka bad thang ia ki.
  13. Khleh ia ka dawai formalin shi pawa litre ha ka san litre ka um khnang ba ka bor dawai kan lah ban pyniap ia ki khniang bad jingpang. Phikir bha haba pyndonkam ia ka.
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