Package of Practices (English Version)
|Rice/Paddy||Wheat||Maize||Temperate Fruits||Vegetable||Carrot||Black Pepper||Kiwi Fruit||Strawberry|
for the cultivation of Temperate Fruits
|Sl.No.||Plum Family –
|Peach Family –
|Apricot Family –
|Pear Family –
|1.||Common and Botanical name of the fruit||(a) Prunus domestica (European Plum)
(b) Prunius salicina (Japaneseplum)
Self sterile except santarosa and beauty which are self fertile.
All varieties are mostly self fertile
All varieties are self fertile.
(a) Pyrus communis (European pears)
(b) Pyruspyri folia (Ornamental pears) Most of the varieties are self sterile except Naspati or sand pear.
|2.||Common varieties||Prunus domestica - Green gage, Duffy Early June, Early Transparent gage, etc.
Prunus salicina - Santa Rosa or Wickson, Satsuma, Beauty, Mari Pos, Domis etc.
|Clingstoneor white fleshed varieties - Eureka , Altons, etc.
Freestone or yellow fleshed varieties - Elberta, Kiora, Flordasun etc.
|New castle, Kaisha, Nugget, Shipley Early, Suffaida.||Pyrus communis - William’s or William’s Bartlett, Dr. Jule’s Guyot, Marguerite Marilat, etc.
Pyruspyri folia-Naspati, Gola, Kieffer, etc. which are also of low chilling requirement.
|3.||Chilling Requirements||European plums need 800-1000 hrs below 7oC (45oF)||Most peach cultivation needs specific chilling hours ranging from 600-900 hrs below 7oC (45oF). For proper foliation andbloom in spring||350-900hrs below 7oC (45oF)||Generally 600-1200hrs below 7oC (45oF). But as high as 1500 hrs in case of Bartlettand as low as 150 Hrs in case of Naspati.|
|4 .||Elevation (above MSL) and position to grow||1000-1600m above MSL sunny sites and relatively low rainfall||800-1500m above MSL sunny and frost free sites.||1000-1000m above MSL sunny and frost free sites||1300-2000m above MSL warm and sunny site.|
|5.||Soil requirement||Deep sandy loam soils with internal drainage and free from alkalinity and||Deep fertile and slight acidic soil is ideal with pH of 5.9-6.8 but can also be grown in light soils with plenty of manure||Deep and slightly alkaline loamy soil is best. Thrives best on sandy and chalky soil.||Performs best on deep well drained heavy soils (and is less tolerant to drought it however can perform on poor soil too provided adequate ‘N’ is supplied)|
|6.||Planting distance between rows and plants||5-6 m x 5-6 m depending upon the variety grown and topography of the land.||4-5 m x 4-5 m depending upon the variety grown and topography of the land.||4-5 m x 4-5 m depending upon the variety grown and topography of the land.||6-8 m x 6-8 m depending upon the variety grown and topography of the land.|
|7.||Time of planting||Autumn planting i.e. End of October in areas with mild temperature during winter. Spring planting i.e. First week of January before bud break under extreme winter conditions.||Later winter or Early spring as growth starts early i.e. Last week of November to First week of January||Late Autumn or Early winter as growth starts early i.e. October to November||Autumn when the soil is still warm or latest by mid winter i.e. October to December|
|8.||Best age to Plant (Yrs)||2 years old feathered tress in case of European plums & 1 year old whips for Japanese plums||1 year old whip and to head back to 60 cm above the ground level/td>||Well grown plants of 1-4 years old||2 years old plant|
|9 .||Time of pruning & type of Training||Early Autumn or late spring i.e. mid October or December-January. Usually performs better with the modified central leader system but Japanese plums respond better to open centre system.||Autumn to winter for pruning i.e. end of October-December. Modified leader system of training||Late Autumn mid winter for pruning i.e. end of October – December. Modified leader system of training||Pruning during mid winter and mid summer i.e. mid December & June-July. Either on leader or modified central system of training|
|10 .||Bearing characteristics||Bears fruit at the base of 1 year old shoots and on vigorous spurs on 2 years old wood. Comes to full bearing from 5 years to 10 years onwards||Bears fruit on more than one year old wood i.e. only on shoots produced theprevious year and thus vigorous pruning is needed otherwise old wood will be fruitless. Comes into full bearing from 5-6 years onwards||Bears fruit on one year old shoots and on older spurs. Comes to full bearing from 5-6 years onwards||Bears fruit on 2 year old and older wood. Comes to full bearing from the 6th year onwards|
|11.||General recommended dose of manure & fertilizers. (It is advisable to have the soil tested for actual dose of fertilizer requirement)||50 Kg FYM or compost in Dec-Jan, 20 g N + 15 g P + 15 g K per plant at initial planting and doubling the dose each year till a stabilised dose is reached at 6 years||50 Kg FYM or compost in Dec-Jan, 20 g N + 15 g P + 15 g K per plant atinitial planting and doubling the dose each year till a stabilised dose is reached at 6 years||50 Kg FYM or compost in Dec-Jan, 20 g N + 15 g P + 15 g K per plant at initial planting and doubling the dose each year till a stabilised dose is reached at 6 years||50 or 100 g N + 25 or 50 g P2O5 + 50 or 100 g K2O hectare per year of age until the 6th year and thereafter the rates were stabilised and 40-50 Kg FYM|
|12.||Proppagation Techniques and rootstock used||Mostly by whip and tongue grafting during Jan-Mid Feb, or by shield budding or chip buddings in autumn or in spring on wild peach or wild apricot in case of light soils or on wild plum on heavy and sticky soil.||T Budding from July-September when sap flow is at the peak or whip and tongue grafting in December-January on wild peach seedlings for light soils or on wild plum or apricot for heavy and water logged soils. Can also be propagated through Hardwood cuttings from November – December and through semi ripe cuttings after bud break||T Budding in June or in September and tongue grafting in winter on wild apricot / peach/Plum rootstocks||Whip and tongue grafting on Pyrus Khasiana during winter or cuttings from Autumn to early spring in case of naspati with the help of rooting hormones|
|13.||Common pests & diseases & control measures||Pests – fruit moth, boxers mite, sawflies, etc. spray 0.1% Carbaryl or Malathion or Dichlorvos, etc. Diseases – gummosis, bacterial canker, leaf curl, etc. spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or Bordeaux paste.||Pests – Peach borer, leaf roller, hairy caterpillars, etc. can be spray 0.1 % Parathion or Phosphamidon or Dimethoate. Diseases – leaf curl, bacterial gummosis, powdery mildew spray copper oxy-chloride @ 3 g/L of water or with 1% Bordeaux mixture before bud swells||Pests – Peach fruitfly, plum fruit moth, borers, etc. spray 0.1 % Malathion or Carbaryl forthe above 2 pests and for borers spray 0.1% methylparathion disease – gummosis, leaf curl spray copper oxy-chloride @ 3 G/L of water or carbendazin @ 5 g/L of water in January.||Pests – Caterpillars, bugs, etc. spray 0.1 % Carbaryl or Malathion Disease-Brown rot and gummosis apply Bordeaux paint to effected parts, Fire Blight spray of 1% Bordeaux mixture. Lichens spray 0.5% caustic soda after manual scraping.|
|14.||Average yield/tree (Kg)||30 to 60 Kg||20 to 40 Kg||20 to 30 Kg||40 to 100 Kg|
|15.||Lifespan of tree (yrs)||30 to 50 years||10 to 20 years||35 years||50 to 60 years|
|16.||Remarks and useful tips on Management||At the time of planting, one year old whips should be headed back to a desired height of 60 cms, so as to encourage laterals. Fruit cracking occur due to fluctuating water table and change in atmosphere humidity. Plums are rich in sugars and carotenes. The oil extracted from kernels are used for lubricating cooking etc.||Peach responds to frequent tilling/ploughing up to 10 cm depth during winter. Due to incidence of heavy rainfall, peach trees becomes susceptible to leaf curl. Amongst temperate fruits peach trees are highly susceptible to water logged condition and prefer perfect drainage particularly during the growing season. Peaches are rich sources of proteins as almost all the essential amino acids are present.||Avoid heavy soil since this may make them prone to die back especially in cool and wet winters . Dry summer is needed for successful cropping but drought may cause serious bud drop in the season. In case of heavy soils, union between wild plum and apricot is not successful and breakage always occur. Apricot is a rich source vitamin ‘A’ and also contain more carbohydrates, protein, phosphorous and niacin than other common fruits. The kernel is a rich source of cooking oil and for other pharmaceutical products.||European pear are highly susceptible to fire blight disease, but oriental pears are resistant. Spring frost are harmful to pear production and temperatures at 30 C or lower kikk the open blossoms. Low lands should be avoided. Hail damage both plants and fruits. Pear fruits help in maintaining a desirable acid – base balance in the human body. The main constituents are carbohydrates like sugar, starch and cellulose. It is not particularly rich in vitamins. Browning of cut pears is due to an enzyme called polyphenolase.|