Package of Practices (English Version)

Rice/Paddy Wheat Maize Temperate Fruits Vegetable Carrot Black Pepper Kiwi Fruit Strawberry

for the Cultivation of Rice/Paddy


Recommended Varieties
Besides the prevailing varieties already popular amongst the farmers, the following high yielding varieties are recommended for Meghalaya conditions.

Situation Varieties Yield (Qtl/Ha) Maturity (In Days) Remarks
A. Lowland: Low altitude (below 800m) Ranjit 50-60 160
Bahadur 50-60 160
Pankaj 40-50 150
Mid altitude (800-1300m) RCPL 1-87-8 45-50 145 Red kernels but become white after milling
RCPL 1-87 40-45 145
RCPL 1-3 40-45 140
RCPL 1-3 40-45 140
High altitude (above 1300m) Meg Rice 1 30-35 165
Meg Rice 2 30-35 160
B. Upland : Mid altitude (800-1300m) RCPL 1-29 40-42 130 Resistant to blast
RCPL 1-28 38-40 130
I.E.T 13783 28-30 120
I.E.T 13459 29-30 120

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Seed Bed Preparation
Nursery Area : 1/20th of the total area to be planted is required to make nursery beds (500 sqm/Ha).

Prepare nursery beds, each of length 10m and width 1.25-1.5m. There should be a gap of 30cm in between beds all around for irrigation, drainage and easy movement . Plough or hoe two or three times to a fine tilth. At final preparation apply well rotten F.Y.M, fertilizers and pesticides as follows:-

Requirement for Each Seed Bed

* Farm Yard Manure - 20 kgs
* Urea- 80 gms
* Single Super Phosphate- 80 gms
* Murate of Potash - 40 gms
* Furadan 3G- 40 gms

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Sowing Time

* High altitude region - Mid April to first week of May
* Mid altitude region - May to June
* Low altitude region - June to first week of July

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Seed Selection
Use only well filled and heavy grains. Soak the seeds in salt solution (270gms in 10 litres water ) for about 10 minutes. Select heavier seeds that settles at the bottom after discarding the seeds that floats in the solution. Wash the seeds in clean water immediately after removing from the solution.

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Seed Treatment
Protect the crop from seed-borne diseases by treatment with solution of carbendazim W.P @ 1gm/litre of water. Soak the seeds in the solution for 24hours. This treatment offer protection against fungal diseases like blast, brown spot, root-rot, elongation etc. In areas where bacterial leaf blight is prevalent, treat the seeds by soaking in a solution of 0.5gms streptocycline in 1litre water for 12hours. After treatment, dry the seeds under the shade before sowing.

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Planting Method
Well germinated seeds are to be sown at the rate of 650-1000gm per bed. Seeds are sown on the seed bed by broadcasting method. After sowing, use plant protection measures to control blast by using Bavistin @ 1gm/lit or Hinosam @ 1ml/lit of water as soon as one or two blast spots are seen. When necessary, water the seedbed regularly to keep them under moist condition. Weeding may be done once or twice depending upon the growth of weeds. Spray the nursery once or twice with recommended pesticides if necessary. The seedlings will be ready for transplantation in the main field as per the following table :

Sl. No. Duration of Variety Age of Seedlings (In Days)
1. Short and Medium duration varieties (upto 120 days) 25
2. Medium to Long duration varieties (120-130 days) 30-35
3. Long duration varieties (130-160 days) 30-45

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Seed Rate
* 40kgs/Ha. in case of High Yielding varieties (H.Y.V)
* 50kgs/Ha. in case of Improved varieties for high altitude region

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Field Preparation
Prepare the field thoroughly by three to four ploughing. Irrigate, puddle and level it. Good levelling is necessary for efficient water management to encourage quick establishment and profused tillering.

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Transplanting
Transplant the seedlings when they are at 3 to 4 leaf stage. Normally, seedlings are ready for transplanting within 20-25 days in low altitude, 25-30 days in mid altitude and 50-55 days in high altitude areas.

Irrigate the nursery beds to facilitate easy uprooting of seedlings. Clip off the leaf tips before transplanting. Transplant the seedlings @ 3 to 4 seedlings per hill at 5 to 6cms depth at a spacing of 20 x 10cms (20cms between rows and 10cms between hills in each row).

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Manures and Fertilizers
Judicious and balance fertilizers application are very important. Apply manure and fertilizers in the following split doses.

Time of Application Fertiliser Type H.Y.V Improved varieties Local varieties
A. As basal Application at the time of final preparation (if DAP is use in place of SSP)

F.Y.M

Urea

SSP

MOP

F.Y.M

Urea

DAP

MOP

15-20M.T

65kgs

250kgs

23kg

15-20M.T

33kgs

80kgs

23kgs

15-20M.T

45kgs

155kgs

20kgs

15-20M.T

23kgs

52kgs

20kgs

15-20M.T

22kgs

125kgs

10kgs

15-20M.T

22kgs

42kgs

10kgs

B. As first top dressing at the maximum tillering stage

Urea

MOP

33kgs

21kgs

22kgs

10kgs

10kgs

10kgs

C. As second top dressing at the panicle initiation stage

Urea

MOP

33kgs

21kgs

22kgs

10kgs

10kgs

10kgs

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Inter-Cultural Operation
Re-planting of dead hills should be done within 7-10 days of transplanting with seedlings of the same age. Pre-emergence herbicides like Butachlor @ 25kgs/Ha can be atop dressed after transplanting to check emergence of weed. Perform hand weeding at tillering stage, i.e. 20-25 days after transplanting, before application of first atop dressing of fertilizers. Maintaining 5cms depth of water continuously from rooting stage till 15-20 days before harvesting will keep in check weed growth.

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Water Management
Water should be maintained up to a depth of 5cms right from one week after transplanting till 2 to 3 weeks before harvest.

It should be noted that if irrigation facilities are available, water may be drained out from the field before broadcasting of fertilizers during atop dressing. This is done to avoid undue loss of fertilizer due to runoff. The field may again be irrigated 2 to 3 days after atop dressing.

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Insect Pest Management
(i)Stem Borers : There are different types of stem borers. Caterpillars that bore into stem cause the damage and feed internally causing the death of central shoot known as “Dead Heart”. Affected plants produce white chaffy earhead at flowering stage. Just after hatching larvae migrates between the leaf sheaths where they are protected from natural enemies and insecticidal sprays.

Management :

* Plough and destroy the stubbles after harvest, collect and destroy egg masses in nursery plants.
* Clip off the leaf tips and burn to kill eggs or larvae preventing them from carrying into the main field.

Chemical Control :

* Dip the root of seedlings before transplanting in a solution of chlorpyriphos 1 ml in 1 litre of water for four hours.
* Apply carbofuran 3G @ 20-25 kgs per hectare at 20 and 40 days after transplanting. If the pest appears spray the crop with endosulfan (20 ml) or Carbaryl (36gm) or Quinalphos (27ml) in 18 litre water.

(ii)Army Worms: A full grown caterpillar is dull green in colour with four longitudinal stripes and an orange or brown head . Caterpillars feed on the leaves and in severe infestation entire seed beds and fields are destroyed and the fields appears as if it has been grazed by animals /cattles. The larvae feed voraciously in the night and hide in the soil during the day time.

Management :

* Regular survey of crop at and before maturity. Keep the field under water through proper water management.
* Place straw beds in the fields at several locations. Collect /destroy hiding caterpillars.
* Spray the Bunds with pesticides to prevent migration of pest from one plot to another.

Chemical Control : Spray the crops with any of the chemicals as mentioned in the spray schedule under stem borers.

(iii)Rice Hispa: The insect has attained the status of major pest in bordering areas of Assam and Bangladesh . Both adults and grubs do damage. The adults are small blue green beetle with spines all over the body. The grubs enter and mine the leaf between the epidermal layers creating irregular translucent patches. The adults scrap the upper surface of the leaf blade leaving only the lower epidermis. The damaged plant parts appear as white streaks parallel to the mid ribs.

Management : Check up at the nursery stage, clip affected leaves to prevent carry over grub population. Remove weeds from the nearby fields, which serve as alternate host of the pest.

Chemical Control :

* Dip the seedlings in Chlorpyriphos (0.02 %) for 30 minutes before transplanting.
* Apply Carbofuran 3G @ 20-25 kg per hectare at 20 to 40 days after transplanting. If the pest appear spray the crop with the same chemicals as per spray schedule under stem borers.

(iv)Leaf Folders : The adult moths are brownish orange in colour 8-10 mm long with a wing span of 12-20mm. The larva infests the leaves, roll them longitudinally, live inside and feed on the green matter.

Management : Remove grasses and weeds from the nearby field which are alternate host of the pest.

Chemical Control : When Infestation is observed spray the crop with the chemicals as recommended earlier.

(v)Case Worm : Adults are 6mm long with wing span of 15mm. Slender green coloured caterpillars cut leaf blades into length of about ½” out of which they make tubular cases with which they feed. Several tubes are seen hanging from the plants. The caterpillars often drop suddenly on the surface of water and paddle along till it reaches another plants. During heavy damage, leaves are skeletonised and appear whitish in colour.

Management : Drain water from the field to flush out the insects and tubular cases floating in the field.

Chemical Control : Spray the crop with Quinalphos or Endosulphan solution @ 27ml either one of the chemicals in 18 litres of water.

(vi)Gundhi Bug : It is a major problem in upland as well as in lowland where paddy is grown continuously. The adult is about 15mm long, slender and brownish green in colour, which emits an offensive odour. Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the developing grains by which grains becomes empty (chaffy), lower in quality and break during milling.

Management : Use pheromone traps.

Chemical Control : Dust the crop with Carbaryl 5% or Malathion 5% dust or Chlorpyriphos 2% dust @ 20kg/ha in the morning hours with dusters.
OR
Spray the crop with Monocrotophos or Endosulphan or Quinalphos @ 27ml/18litres water to reduce the population.

(vii)Plant Hopper : The adult hopper is light to dark brown in colour measuring about 3-4mm in body length. Both nymphs and adults damage the plants by sucking the sap. During the early stage of plant growth reduces height, general vigour and infested plants turn yellow and dries up. At later stages, crop dries up in patches known as hopper burn. The pest also transmits virus disease called “grassy stunt”.

Management : Drain water from the field to flush out the insects and tubular cases floating in the field.

a. Clean cultivation by timely weeding to reduce pest population.
b. Adopt spacing as recommended.
c. Use resistant varieties.

Chemical Control : Spray the crop with Quinalphos or Endosulphan solution @ 27ml either one of the chemicals in 18 litres of water.

(viii)Root Knot Nematodes : Those are tiny worms like living bodies. Causes formation of galls on the roots. It attacks the crops during early growth stages and is severe in uplands. The infected plants look stunted with orange yellow leaves and highly reduced yield.

Management :

* Use resistant varieties.
* Provide staking for perching birds.
* Seed/ Seedlings treatment to reduce field protection.
* Place straw on bunds and in fields at several locations collect/destroy hiding caterpillars.
* Check the nursery, clip off affected leaves if infestation is noticed.

Chemical Control : Apply Carbofuran Granules @ 20-25 Kg in nursery at 7 and 50 days after transplanting help control the destruction by root knot nematodes.

I.P.M Strategy for Management of Insect Pest

* Regularly check the insect pest population and its build up.
* Collect egg masses by hand and kill.
* Conserve and encourage parasites and predators.
* Use selective insecticide.
* Clean cultivation-timely weeding.
* Avoid chemical control even at minor loss. Use chemical when only needed.
* Use chemical safe to environment.
* Use balance fertilizers.
* Go for resistance and tolerance varieties.

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Disease Management
(i)Blast : This fungal diseases affect the crop at all growing stage viz nursery, tillering and flowering. The disease affects the leaves, nodes and panicles of rice plant. Typical symptoms on leaves are spindle or eye-shaped spots with grey centres. Nodes of infected culms turn black and break due to rotting. Neck of the panicles also rot leading to chaffy grains or breaking of panicles.

Management :

* Avoid heavy dose of nitrogen fertilizers. Use only recommended doses.
* Use resistant varieties.

Chemical Control :

* Soak the seed for 12hrs in 1gm/litre carbendazin 50 W.P (Bavistin, Derosol or J.K.Stein) prior to sowing in the nursery.
* Root dip treatment of the seedlings immediately after uprooting for 12hrs in 0.1% Carbendazin 50 W.P. solution.
* Spray Bavistin (1ml/litre) followed by Hinnosan (1ml/litre) or Mancozeb (3gms/litre) at fortnightly interval beginning from first appearance of the disease.
OR
Apply Kitazin Granules 17 G @30kg/ha. In 2 equal split doses at tillering and booting stages with standing water in the field.


(ii)Brown Spot : It is a fungal disease. It produces oval dark brown spots on leaves, stems and plumes. When severe, causes heavy damage both in nursery and the field. The disease occurs mostly in deficient and poor soils and it is commonly referred to as poor man’s disease.

Management :

* Use resistant varieties.
* Correct Soil deficiency by application of recommended and balance fertilizers.

Chemical Control :

* Seed treatment / dressing with Organo Mercurial fungicides like Agrosan GN or Thiram @ 2gms/kg seeds gives effective control of the disease.
* Spray pesticides with chemicals as per spray schedule in the case of blast.


(iii)Bacterial Blight : Bacterial disease with typical symptoms of yellow to white lesions along the margins, which may ultimately enlarge to cover the entire leaf. The infection occurs mostly during transplanting through injury to the roots and leaves. The disease spreads fast under favourable environmental conditions like incessant rains, strong winds and warm temperature.

Management :

* Use resistant varieties.
* Avoid excessive use of Nitrogenous fertilizers as increase Nitrogen increased the incidence of the disease due to luxuriant vegetative growth.
* Soak the seed 8-10 hours before planting in a solution of 1gm Streptocycline together with 10 gms Thiram for every 10 Litres of water.

Chemical Control : Spray the affected crop with Agrimycin 100 solution @ 5 gms in 18 litres water and repeat before grain formation.


(iv)Utbatta disease : It is a fungal and seed borne disease. It is a serious disease since it causes 100% sterility to the panicles. The fungus attacks the panicles resulting in sticking together of the ash coloured spikelets so that no grains formation can take place. Infected plants are shorter in heights and thus escape attention.

Management :

* Avoid heavy nitrogen dose.
* Use disease free seed.
* Chemical control.
* Treat the seed with Carbendazin @ 1gm/Kg of seed before planting.

Chemical Control : Spray the affected crops with the above same chemical @1 gm/litre of water at the panicle initiation stage.


(v)Sheath Blight : It is a soil borne disease and has recently assumed seriousness in the region. The disease initially affects the leaf sheath and under favourable conditions also affects the leaves. The affected parts get blighted severely affecting the yields. Infected rice plants tends to lodge in the field.

Management : Avoid close planting and heavy nitrogenous fertilizer application.

Chemical Control : Spray the affected crop with fungicide as recommended earlier.

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Harvesting
Harvesting may preferably be done during sunny days as soon as about 85% of the grains are maturing.

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