Package of Practices (Khasi Version)

Phan Sohniamtra Slasha Sying Shynrai Tit Budam Vanilla Broccoli Jingpang Sohsaw

Ka Rukom Rep Phan


Ki jait Symbai:
   Don bun ki jait symbai ba la thung ha Meghalaya. Ki jait phan ba la rim kum u ‘lah Lhew (Great Scot), Phan Jatira (Arron Consul) bad Phan Syntiew (Up-to-date), ki long ki jait kiba ki nongrep ki dang rep. Hynrei na ka bynta ban kyntiew ia ka jingmih, donkam ban thung da ki jait symbai kiba lah ban pynmih bun (H.Y.V.) bad ruh kiba lah ban shan na ka jingpang iapiong kum u Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Megha, Kufri Giriraj bad kiwei pat ki jait symbai thymmai.
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Ka Khyndew:
   Ban mih bha, u phan u donkam ka khyndew kaba jiar bha ka um. Ka jingkloi bad mih slem u phan ka shong ha ka jinglong ka khyndew, ki jingbam bad ruh ki jingpang ba don ha ka. Don bun ki jait jingpang ba kynrei haba ka khyndew ka long shyiap kum ka jingpang sohkhruh (scab), iap kyniur (wilt) bad jingpang thoh dak iong (black scurf). Ka jingpang iapiong (late blight), jingpang bampong (stem canker) ki kham jyllei haba ka khyndew ka ni bad ktieh.
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Ban pynkhreh ia ka jaka thung:
   Pynkhuid ia ka jaka rep na ki niut ki kymbat bad ki lyngkhot niut baroh. Da kane ka rukom yn kham duna ka jinglut ban thiew niut hadien ba u phan u sdang ban mih. Puh jylliew ia ka khyndew bad shain pynlwit haduh ban da ni bha.
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Ka jingshit jingkhriat:
   Ka jingshit jingkhriat, u slap, ka jingsngem, ka jingshai ki don ka bynta ba kongsan ia ka jingmih u phan. U jingthung u san bha haba ka sngi ka shai bad ka miet ka pyngngad. Na ka bynta ban long bha u phan donkam ka sngi kaba lyngkot bad ka jingdum kaba pyngngad bad kham jlan.
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Ka por thung:
   Ha ki jaka lum, ka por kaba biang eh ban thung ia u phan lyiur ka long naduh shiteng u bnai Rymphang haduh shiteng u bnai Lber. Ia u phan synrai lah ban thung naduh u bnai Nailar haduh shiteng u bnai Nailur. Ha ki jaka them bad syiad thung ia u phan naduh u bnai Risaw haduh u ‘Naiwieng.
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Ki Symbai ban thung:
   Thung da ki symbai kiba na kajuh ka jait. Ki symbai ki dei ban long kiba lait na ka jingpang ne khniang, khamtam na ka jingpang virus ba nang pynduna ia ka jingmih katba nang rep bun bun snem.

   Ki symbai haba thung ki dei ban long kiba la biang ki speh khnang ban mih kloi shen hadien ba la thung. Ki phan symbai ban thung ki dei ruh ban long kiba paka bad ba la ioh na kito ki jaka kiba thikna.

   Ki nongrep ki lah ban pynmih ia la ki jong ki phan symbai ba thikna da kaba bud ia kine ki jingbthah harum :-
1. Thung da ki phan symbai ba la jied, kiba bha bad ioh na ka jaka ba thikna.
2. Thung bad pyndep hapoh shiteng u bnai Rymphang bad shiteng u bnai Lber.
3. Rat bad weng noh ia ki jingthung ba i don jingpang naduh ba ki dang rit.
4. Peit bniah ia ki khniang bad jingpang bad synreit dawai ban iada lada i donkam.
5. Ot, weng ne thang noh ia ki jyntang phan hadien ba u la iap shuwa ban tih ia u phan.
6. Tih ia u phang hadien ba ka snep ka la kylla eh bad rben.
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Kaba jied bad sumar ia u Symbai:
   U symbai phan ba biang eh ban thung u long malu-mala kat ka jingheh ka pylleng syiar. Kiba bun ki nongrep ki pyndonkam da u symbai uba khia duna 30gm ei-ei. Lehse kane ka long na ka daw ba ka jingdonkam symbai na ka bynta kajuh ka jaka ka kham duna. Ka jingpyndonkam da ki symbai barit ka lah ban nang kham pynpur ia ki jingpang mangkariang (virus).
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Ka rukom thung:
   Buh uwei u symbai ha man la kawei ka thliew. Tap ia u symbai da ka sboh niut/eit masi kumba 4 – 5 kilo shi thliew. Ber sawdong ka sboh niut/eit masi da kitei ki dawai sboh ba la dep khleh lypa. Tap ryntih ia ki thliew da ka khyndew. (Na ka bynta ka jingmang ba thikna ia ka jingdonkam sboh dawai, kan khambha lada lah ban phah eksamin shuwa ia ka khyndew).
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U Symbai:
   Ka jingdonkam symbai ban thung ka long kumba 2 haduh 2.5 tonne ha ka jaka kaba shi hektar - lada shim da u symbai uba pdeng ka jingheh. Hynrei lada ioh da u symbai ba kham heh, ka jingdonkam ka long kumba 3 tonne shi hektar.
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Ka jingkhah ka jingiar:
   Ring nur ha ka jingjngai kumba 120 cms na kawei ka nur sha kawei pat ha ka rukom ba ka jaka thung kan shong kumba 20 cms ka kynjang. Ka lynter jong ka jaka thung lah ban shna antad kat kum ka jingshah jong ka jaka. Ban suk ka trei ka ktah ki nur um ki donkam kumba 50 cm ka jingiar.
Shwa ban thung, tih thliew kiba jylliew 10 – 15 cms kat kum kane ka jingjngai kumne harum :
a) na ka bynta kito ki symbai ba lah ban pynmih bun - 30 cms X 45 cms.
b) na ka bynta kiwei pat ki jait - 30 cms X 20 cms.
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Ki sboh bad sboh dawai:
   Donkam kumba 15 – 20 ton ka sboh niut ne eit masi na ka bynta ka jaka kaba heh shi hektar. Ka sboh niut ne eit masi ka iarap ban pynbha ia ka hyndew bad pynneh ia ka jingsngem hapoh jong ka. Nalor kane, donkam ruh ban ai sa ia ki sboh dawai kum ka sboh shini, sboh dpei bad ka sboh shyiap kumba la mang harum:-
Naka Bynta rep Shi Hektar
Lada Pyndonkam da ka Sboh Dpei Lada pyndonkam da ka sboh DAP
Sboh shini 220 kg Sboh shini 135 kg
Sboh dpei 750 kg Sboh DAP 210 kg
Sboh MOP 75 kg Sboh MOP 75 kg

Kawei ka rukom pyndonkam sboh dawai ka long ban khleh lang shiteng na kaba la mang ka sboh shini (110 kgs), baroh ka sboh dpei (750 kgs) bad baroh ka sboh MOP (75 kgs) ha shuwa ban thung. Shiteng ka sboh shini kaba dang sah (110 kgs) na kaba la mang, pyndonkam 1½ - 2 bnai hadien ba la thung lane ha ka por ban kara khyndew.
Kawei pat ka rukom ka long ban khleh 25 kgs ka sboh shini, baroh ka sboh DAP (210 Kgs) bad baroh ka sboh MOP (75 kgs) shisngi shuwa ban thung. Ka sboh shini kaba dang sah (110 kgs) na kaba la mang, pyndonkam 1½ - 2 bnai hadien ba la thung lane ha ka por ban kara khyndew.
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Ka thiew niut:
   Ia ki niut bad kynbat donkam ban thiew naduh ba u jingthung u sdang ban kot 10 – 15 cms ka jingjrong. Ki kynbat ki long ka jingduh namar ki knieh noh ia ka um, ki jingbam bad ka jingshai ba u jingthung u donkam. Nalor nangta ki long ruh ki jakarieh ia ki khniang bad jingpang ba pynduh bad pynjulor ia u jingthung. Ki niut ki kynbat ki san bha shwa ban kara ne ai khyndew ia u jingthung. Donkam namar kata ban thiew bha ia ki kynbat shwa ban kara ne ai khyndew.
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Kaba ai um:
   Ia u phan pyrem bad phan lyiur ym donkam ban ai um namar u slap ha kine ki aiom u la biang na ka bynta ka jingdonkam um u jinghtung. Ia u phan synrai ne phan tlang donkam ban ai um la kumno kumno man la ka 10 - 15 sngi ha ka por rkhiang bym ioh slap.
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Ka jingiada na ki Khniang:
a) U ‘Niang Khung (Cutworm) : Kine ki jait khniang tda rong iong bthuh jyrngam ki mih na kawei ka jait thapbalong. Ki pynjot da kaba dait na trai bad pynkyllon ia ki jyntang phan khamtam ha ki por ba dang lung bad sdang mih na khyndew. Ki pynjot kumne tang ha ki por miet ba dum bad rieh noh hapoh khyndew shen hadien ba la kynjat shai bad mih sngi. Ki pynkyllon ia ki jyntang phan kham bun shah ban ia kaba ki lah ban bam.

Ban iada : Ha ki jaka ba kynrei kine ki jait khniang, ber ryngkat bad ki sboh dawai ha ka por thung da ki dawai pyniap khniang kum ka Endosulphan, Fenvelerate ne kiwei kiwei ki jait dawai powder. Lada ym pat shym la ai jingiada lypa, ber sawdong ha trai u jingthung da kawei na kijuh ki dawai ba la kdew haneng lane synreit dawai ia u jingthung bad ia ka khyndew ha trai da ka dawai khniang Chlorpyriphos 20 EC kumba 1.5 litre na ka bynta shi hektar ka jaka (8 shamoit sha shi tin umphniang sharak ka um).

b) Ka thapbalong (tuber moth) : Kine ki dei ki jait thapbalong kiba rit ba sawbthuh ka rong jong ki sner. Ki khniang tda ba mih na ki pylleng jong ka ki pynjot ia u jingthung ha ki ar rukom – (1) da kaba bam bad sam thliew nur ia ki sla bad (2) bad bam ia ki khmat jong u phan ha ki lyngkha ne ha ki jaka buh.

Ban iada : Ai khyndew bad tep ia ki phan kiba mih bad paw shabar.

Lada donkam synreit ia u jingthung da ka dawai Monocrotophos 40 EC. 1.5 litre ka dawai na ka bynta shi hektar ka jaka (5 shamoit sha ha ka shi tin umphniang sharak ka um). Synreit khatduh 2 – 3 taiew shuwa ban tih ia u phan.

Siang ia ka jaka buh phan da ki jyntang kba ne sohpangkhlieh ba la iap bad rkhiang nangta tap kumjuh da ki. Kane kan iarap ban pynduh lad ia ki thapbalong ban kha pylleng ha u phan ha ka por buh.

c) ‘Niangbyrnai (white grub) : Kine ki dei kito ki niang tda kiba long lam lieh kum ka dud bad ki mih na kito ki jait khniang kyndad. Ki shong hapoh khyndew bad pynjot ia u jingthung da kaba bam ia ki thied jong u. U jingthung u tlot u swai hadien ba la pynduh ne pynjot ia u thied. Kine ki khniang ki bam ruh ia ka doh jong u phan hapoh khyndew.

Ban iada : Puh jylliew bad kylla ia ka khyndew ban mih ki khniang shabar. Pyniap da ki kti bad ai lad ia ki sim ban bam.

Thung noh da kiwei ki jait jingthung haba la kynrei une u jait khniang.

Haba ai sboh, pyndonkam tang da ka sboh kaba la rkhiang bad ba la ih (rim) bha.

Lada donkam synreit ia u jingthung da kawei na kine ki jait dawai; Chlorpyriphos 25 EC lane Endosulphon 35 EC lane Quinalphos 25 EC lane Carboryl 50 WP (5 – 7 shamoit sha ha ka shi tin umphniang sharak ka um).

d) Ki khniang Ksi (Aphids) : Kine ki jait khniang kiba rit ki long shi kynhun bad snoh ia u jingthung khamtam ha ki bynta kiba dang lung. Ki don bun jait ki rong bad kiba kham kynrei ki dei kito kiba long rong blad jyrngam. Ki pynjot da kaba kjit ia ka um ne jingbam napoh jong u jingthung. Ki long ruh ki jait khniang ba kit bad pynsaphriang ia ka jingpang mangkariang (virus) kaba pynjulor bad ktah ia ka jingseisoh u phan.

Ban iada : Kine ki jait khniang ki sngewtynnad ban jan sha ka kynja rong stem. Ban pynduna pynkhreh ia ki tin ba la ai rong stem bad buh um ha ki. Buh ia kine ki tin ha man la ka kyntoit. Man la ka teng leit khmih ia kine ki tin bad pyniap ia ki khniang ba don ne lang hapoh ka tin um.

Synreit da kawei na kine ki dawai shisien ne ar sien katba i donkam. Ka Methyl Dematon 25 EC lane Dimethoate 30 EC kumba 1.2 litre na ka bynta shi hektar ka jaka ( 4 – 5 shamoit sha ha ka shi tin umphniang sharak ka um).
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Ka jingiada na ki Jingpang:
a) Ka jingpang iapiong (late blight) : Ka long ka jingpang ba kynrei bad pynjulor ia u jingthung ha ki jaka lum jong ngi. Ka jinglong ka suin bneng naduh u ‘nai Jymmang haduh u Risaw ka biang bha na ka bynta ban phriang kane ka jingpang. Ka paw nyngkong ha ki sla kum ki dak iong jngum kiba nang heh bad pur haba ka suin bneng ka sngem bad syaid. Haba shit ka sngi kine ki jingthoh ki tyrkhong bad hap noh bad ki pynpei ia ki sla. Lada ym iada kane ka jingpang ka roi stet bha bad ktah ia baroh ki bynta jong u phan naduh ki sla, ka metbah bad haduh u phan. Kane ka jingpang ka ktah ia ka jingmih u phan bad ka long kawei na ki daw ba u phan u pyut wat hadien ba la tih bad buh ia u.

Ban iada : Jied bha ia u phan shuwa ban buh symbai ia u.

Ai khyndew bad tep shapoh ia baroh ki phan ba mih shabar ha ki lyngkha.

Jied bad thung tang kito ki jait symbai ba mih bha bad ba lah ban kham shan ia kane ka jingpang kum u Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Megha bad kiwei kiwei.

Lada donkam synreit da ka dawai Mancozeb 75 WP 8 (phra) shamoit ha ka shi tin umphniang sharak ka um. Synreit shen hadien ba la ioh u slap ba jur bad haba ka bneng ka sdang syaid.

Mait, weng noh lane thang ia ki jyntang ba la iap kumba ar taiew shuwa ban tih ne khlong ia u.

b) Ka jingpang thoh dak ki sla (early blight) : Kane ka jingpang kam da kynrei hynrei ka long ka jingpang kaba pynjulor lada u jingthung u ioh kem ia ka. Ka kham kynrei haba u jingthung um ioh ia ka jingbam kaba biang khamtam ia ka jingbam na ka sboh shini. Ki dak jong kane ka jingpang ki long ka jingthoh dak saw bthuh ha ki sla. Kine ki dak ki nangpur bad nangheh bad hadien ki kylla tyrkhong. Kane ka jingpang ka ktah nyngkong ia ki sla ba kham iaw bad pur pat sha ki bynta ba kham lung. Ki phan ba la ioh ktah da kane ka jingpang ki sti bad ka doh shapoh ka don ka jingthoh pyut. Kane ka jingpang ka phriang khamtam lada pyndonkam da ki symbai ba la don jingpang lypa.

Ban iada : Pyndonkam da ki symbai kiba bha bym don jingpang bad ba la ioh na kito ki jaka bym don kane ka jingpang.

Ai sboh bad sboh dawai kaba biang. Synreit da ka sboh dawai shini ba la khleh 20 shamoit sha ka sboh shini ha ka 10 lit ka um lane 36 shamoit sha ha ka shi tin umphniang sharak ka um.

Kaba synreit dawai ban iada ia ka jingpang iapiong ka long ruh ka lad jingiada na kane ka jingpang.

c) Ka jingpang iap kyniur (Bacterial Wilt) : Kane ka jingpang ka la sdang kynrei ha kine ki jaka jong ngi. Ki dak kiba paw jong kane ka jingpang ki long ka jingran ne ring tyrkhong ki sla syriem kumba u jingthung u jan iap stai namar bym ioh um. Kane ka jingpang ka sdang shuwa na jrong bad hiar arsut shapoh trai. Ki sla ki kylla stem bad suki u jingthung u iap. Kane ka jingpang ka ktah shibun ia ka jingmih u phan bad ruh ia ka jingpyut jong u hadien ba la tih bad buh ia u ha ki jaka buh.

Ban iada : Jied bad thung tang da kito ki jait symbai ba bha bad ioh kyrpang na kito ki jaka bym don kane ka jingpang.

Lada kane ka jingpang ka la ktah jur, rep noh ha kum kita ki jaka da kiwei pat ki jait jingthung bym ia dei na ka juh ka jait ing bad u phan (sohsaw, sohmynken, sohbaingon ki iahap ha kajuh ka ing).

Thung ia u phan symbai baroh uwei khlem da phiah ia u.

Rat ia ki tynrai ba la ktah da kane ka jingpang bad thang noh ia ki.

Kaba thung kloi ia u phan (hapoh u bnai Rymphang) ka pynduna ban kem kane ka jingpang.

Ber da u bleaching powder ha kito ki jaka ba mih ki tynrai phan ba la kem da kane ka jingpang.

d) Ka jingpang bam pong (canker) : Ia kane ka jingpang lah ban ithuh da ki dak ba u phan u sniewdur, at pyrshen, sohkhruh bad long thliew. Kane ka jingpang ka ktah ruh ia ki khmat jong u phan.

Ban iada : Thung bujli ia ki jaka rep phan da kiwei ki jingthung kum u riewhadem.

Pynkhuid ia ka jaka rep na ki kynbat ne niut.

e) Ki jingpang Mangkariang (virus) : Kine ki long ki jait jingpang ba la ktah jur ia ka jingmih phan. Don shibun jait ki jingpang mangkariang kiba kham pynjulor napdeng jong ki ki long:-

i) Ka jingpang kdor sla (Leaf roll) : Ka dei ka jingpang ba la pur bha ha kine ki jaka jong ngi. Shisien ba la kem da kane ka jingpang u jingthung um lah shuh ban khie khlieh bad ki phan kiba mih kim long shuh kiba heh hynrei kiba shu pdeng bad ki barit. Kane ka jingpang ka sdang shwa ha ki sla ba shalor bad dang lung. Ki sla ki khain bad kdor shalor. Ki sla na ki rud teng teng ki kem ron saw ne sawblad. Ki jingthung ki long blad, lyngkot bad ieng beit. Kham hadien ki sla ki kylla stem bad tyrkhong. Kane ka jingpang ka lah ban ktah shuwa ia ki sla kiba na trai lada thung da ki symbai ba don lypa kane ka jingpang.

Ha lum, ia kane ka jingpang la pynphriang da ki khniang ksi kiba long ki nongkit ia ka jingpang. Kine ki jait khniang ki roi bha haba ka suinbneng ka syiad bad rang.

ii) Ka jingpang Mosaic : Kane ka dei kawei pat ka jingpang ba la sdang kynrei. Ka sdang nyngkong ha ki sla kum ki dak thoh blad jyrngam ha ki dur ba pher bad u jingthung u lyngkot bad um san shuh. Ka jingmih u phan ruh ka duna shibun na ka daw kane ka jingpang.

Ym pat don dawai kiba biang ban iada na ki jingpang virus.


Ban iada : Thung da ki symbai ba bha ba la ioh tang na kito ki jaka bympat ktah kane ka jingpang.

Ban ioh u symbai ba bha bud ia ki jingbthah kumba la batai ha shuwa.

Lada i donkam synreit ban iada na ki khniang ksi kumba la bthah ha shuwa.
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Ka por kheit /tih /khlaw:
   Kan bha ban tih ia u phan tad hadien ba la eh bad rben ka snep. Kan khambha shuh shuh ban tih ia u ha ka por ba rang ba rkhiang. Kaba tih biang por ka iarap ban pynduna ia ka jingphler ka snep ha ka por tih ne haba rah ba rong. Ot, kyntait ne thang noh ia u jyntang phan kumba 1-2 taiew shuwa ban tih.
Na ka bynta ban kham myntoi bad ban ioh ia ki symbai phan kiba biang, jied ia ki phan kat kum kine ki jingheh :

* Ki phan rit bad ksain - hapoh 25mm.
* Ki phan pdeng - 25-35mm.
* Ki phan paitbah - 35-50mm.
* Ki phan heh (special) - palat 50mm.

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Ka jingmih:
   Na ka jaka kaba shi hektar, ka jingmih u phan ka ju long kumba 8 haduh 15 tonne.
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Ka jingbuh:
   Buh ia u phan ha ki jaka ba pyngngad bad ioh lyer bha. Kan kham bha ban buh ia u phan ha ki jaka ba la siang da ki lyntang ne siej. Buh ia u phan ym palat 20 cm ka jingrben. Na ka bynta u phan symbai, tap ia u phan da u jyntang kba ne sla sohpangkhlieh ba rkhiang ban iada na ki jingkha pylleng ki thapbalong.
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