Package of Practices (English Version)
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for the Cultivation of Black Pepper
Grow Panniyur - 1 which is an early bearing High Yielding Variety capable of giving 3 to 4 times the yield of other local varieties.
Pepper is a plant of humid tropical climate. An annual rainfall of about 250 cms is required for its proper growth and successful cultivation. It tolerates a minimum of 10°C and a maximum of 40°C. Although pepper can be grown from almost sea level to an altitude of 1,200 metres, lower elevation may be preferable.
Pepper can grown in clay loams, red loams and sandy loams. However, it thrives best on well drained virgin soil rich in humus content and other plant nutrients.
Generally propagation of Black pepper is done from cuttings. During the month of March- April, pepper cuttings of 2 to 3 nodes length are put in the soil filled bamboo basket or in perforated polythene bags fof initiation of rootings. These cuttings are ready for planting in about 3 months.
Rapid Multiplication of Panniyur - 1
Rooted Cuttings :
There are two methods of raising pepper cuttings in the nursery as follows :-
* Pits measuring 60 cms x 60 cms x 60 cms may be dug at a distance of about 1.8 metre apart each way.
The pits may be filled in with well rotten cowdung and soil in ratio 3:1 before planting. Three to four rooted cuttings are generally planted in each pit. The growing shoots are coiled on stakes planted at corners of the pit.
* Pits 60 cms x 60 cms x 60 cms are dug at a distance of 1 metre apart. Two or three rooted cuttings are planted in each pit. One stake ia put at one end of each pit and the cuttings are tied on the same for climbing. In due course runners will extend from each cutting and the nodes of these runners may be fixed in the dug soil and stakes provided for each such point for support of the pepper vines. Horizontal stakes may be provided to connect the pits for climbing of the new shoots, coming up from each point. The new shoots may be coiled on the stakes.
Season of Planting :
May – June
Methods of Planting :
The pepper plant is a climber and hence it needs support of some other plant (called standard) to climb. Many of the existing trees in a garden such as arecanut, coconut, jackfruit, mango and other forest trees can be used as the standard or mother plant. When such plants are not available cuttings of Erythrina Indica may be planted ahead of pepper cutting season to be used as a standard. Pepper should be planted at a distance of three to four metres from plant to plant on either side. Pits measuring 0.5 m x 0.5 m x 0.5 m should be dug on the northern or eastern side at a distance of 30 cms away from the standard. With the onset of monsoon 2 to 3 rooted cuttings are to be planted in the pits prepared earlier at the base of each standard. It is to be ensured that at least one node of the cuttings goes underground and the upper portion of 45 cms or more being made to rest on the standard. The pits are then to be filled in with the soil mixed with about 9 kgs of compost or well rotten cattle manure and should be pressed hard to avoid water stagnation. Adequate shade may be provided when the pepper plants are young.
Cultural Operation :
Rooted cuttings are to be tied up to the standard as and when required till the vines get established firmly on the standard. Two diggings around the standard and vines should be given once in the month of August – September and another in the months of October- November. The vines should be earthed up along with the operation of digging. In case of hill slope plantation, contour bunding and terracing should be done to prevent soil erosion.
Panniyur – 1 is not a shade loving plant. Adequate sunlight should be allowed to enter in the plantation area. Pruning of the excessive foliage of the standard should be done before flowering and fruiting of the pepper vine.
Manures and Fertilizers :
* Apply about 10 Kgs of well rotten cattle manure or compost per vine per year during April- May.
* Apply Ammonium Sulphate 500 gms, Super Phosphate 1 kgs and muriate of potash 100 gms. per year per vine in the month of August – September.
* Apply slaked lime at the rate of 500 gms per vine in alternate year during April – May.
Plant Protection :
i) Insect Pests :
To control Flea-beetle and scale insect spray with Dimecron 85 EC at the rate of 4 teaspoonful in 1 kerosene tinful of water at an interval of 12-15 days.
a) Slow wilt - Result in decaying of the roots followed by yellowing and shedding of leaves and consequent gradual death of the vines.
Control - Drench the soil around the root zone of the affected vines with 9-14 litres of a solution of Ceresan wet in the strength of 1 gm per litre of water.
b) Quick-wilt - Infection usually begins on the stem at the height of 30 cm from the base of the vine. The affected bark often peels off, the leaves turn yellow, wither and drop, leading to the sudden death of the vine.
i)Spray Blue Copper - @ 15 teaspoonful per 20 litres of water at an intervan of 12- 15 days.
ii)Drenching of the soil should be done as indicated on the control of slow wilt.
Harvesting and Curing :
Harvesting starts from November and continues upto March. Harvesting is done by hand picking the whole spikes when one or two berry on the spike.