Rice is a major food crop of the State occupying an average annual area of 104800.00 Ha. Out of the total crop area of 276932 Ha. in the State, rice alone occupies 37.84% of the total cropped area producing an annual average of 135000.50 Metric Tons with an average yield of 1290.6 Kg /Ha during the period 1990-91 to 2000-01.

About 42.7 thousand hectares (40.50%) of the total area under rice were estimated to be under H.Y.V.

The computed annual growth rate during this period is 230 Ha (0.22%) with an average annual production increase of 6500 Metric Tons(4.8%) and an average annual growth rate of 58.75 Kg per Ha (4.55%).

Rice is grown in the region in a wide range of climatic conditions ranging from deep water to high altitudes. The requirement of varieties are also diverse as it is also grown in different seasons during the year. The rice grown in the State are :

* Ahu or Autumn rice
* Sali or Kharif rice - also called winter rice
* Boro or Spring/Summer rice and
* Hill rice
* Bao or Deep water rice

However for uniformity of statistics, rice has been classified into three classes i.e. Summer Rice, Winter Rice and Autumn Rice.

Considerable area under rice both in upland and lowland is rainfed. The upland rice is almost synonymous with rainfed rice and is grown on hill slopes under shifting cultivation. It is also grown under rainfed permanent area on terraced hills and flat lands usually bunded and by direct seeded method.

Varieties Grown

Varieties * in lowland area - Ranjit, Bahadur, Pankaj
* in mid altitudes - RCPL 1-87-8, RCPL 1-3, RCPL 3-3
* in upland mid altitudes - RCPL 1-29, RCPL 1-28, IET 13783, IET 13459
* in high altitudes - Megh Rice-1 and Megh Rice-2

The other varieties of rice that are grown in the State are IR-8, IR-36, Jaya, Pusa -2-21, Mahsuri, Pankaj, etc.

Native Rice Varieties with Desirable Traits

* Ngoba - Higher Yield in lowland, earliness, Cold tolerance at flowering phase/diffused light, Fine grain, alternative source of dwarfing gene
* Tura-113 - Higher Yield in lowland
* Khornorullo - Non Lodging, Tall

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